Mokslas ir technologijos

How did NASA Steer the Saturn V?- Smarter Every Day 223

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Behind the Scenes:
View Linus's video:
Functional Requirements for the Launch Vechile Digital Computer
Launch Vehicle Digital Computer
Dr. von Braun (seated) examining a Saturn computer in the Astrionics Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center
U.S. Space & Rocket Center,_Alabama
IBM's page on the Saturn Guidance Computer
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Ambiance, audio and musicy things by: Gordon McGladdery
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Warm Regards,


  1. SmarterEveryDay


    Prieš 12 dienų

    I would like to point out several things: 1. Luke Talley is awesome. 2. Every single frame of this video requires more memory storage than this memory module is capable of handling. Think about that. 3. On the second channel we talk about things like how they took into account gyroscopic precession with this bad boy. They also crashed this into the moon and used the signal as a way to figure out what the inside of the moon is like. It's a good video, you should consider watching it. ( ) 4. This is not the Apollo computer. This is the Saturn V computer. They're different. This steered the rocket. 5. People that support Smarter Every Day on Patreon are really cool and I like them a lot. ( )

    • Flearther McPlane

      Flearther McPlane

      Prieš 12 val

      @Unknown Infamous "Enjoy your new reality" is a common close for me. It's not necessarily a put down, rather another way to say, "wake up". The truth of our reality is resisted with combative disregard and insult. It's easy to get lost in the war against information. With space being abundantly propagated on tv, I am irritated almost all day. So yes! It is personal!

    • Unknown Infamous

      Unknown Infamous

      Prieš 19 val

      Flearther McPlane how could you construe I believe in space from the statement I made? Are you slow or something? New found reality? I know all about everything you said plus way more including the books removed from the Bible that directly prove the earths true makeup. I know the truth about our past and the coming future persecution. The majority of people that are asleep could use your info but your barking up the wrong tree here bud. Good luck with that, and calm down. You seem to take this too personal, it’s a shame more people don’t know. But treating them like you are above them for knowing a little bit of knowledge is not right. Humble yourself, you will catch more with honey than vinegar...

    • Flearther McPlane

      Flearther McPlane

      Prieš 23 val

      @Unknown Infamous What I know is, space is a hoax! 100% of the time, rockets go up, level off and fall down within just a few hundred miles into an ocean. What I know is, NASA lies about EVERYTHING! Thousands of hours of video proof. Their own videos! They are an unsubstantiated self regulating authority on "SPACE" and everything to do with it. The "Mars Rover" is being filmed on Devon Island. The landscape of Devon Island and Mars are nothing short of exactly the same short of the sepia color added for effect. The Moon Hoax has already been proven beyond doubt to anyone with at least 2 working brain cells. Research 'bubbles in space'... Research Flat Earth Research Operation Paper Clip Research Operation Fish Bowl Research Operation Domonic Enjoy your new reality... The one you've been following is for the retarded. That's not an insult, it's a FACT!

    • Unknown Infamous

      Unknown Infamous

      Prieš dieną

      Flearther McPlane he actually knows we didn’t but is too scared to go against the grain. He used to have a video with all kinds of proofs we didn’t go. But his nerd fan base that keep him paid , persuaded him to remove his videos and follow like a good boy. He’s a sellout..

    • Unknown Infamous

      Unknown Infamous

      Prieš dieną

      Dr. David Banner F.E.S. I asked the same question. Lol Except I accounted for a torr 10 and the magic O-Rings used in the Cupola. Don the lousiest liar Pettit. Dude gets caught lying all the time and acts like a deer in headlights. Lol

  2. Daddy Vinn

    Daddy Vinn

    Prieš 14 val

    with all that complexity. still flatearthers say we didn't land on the moon.

  3. Wisoghe139


    Prieš 17 val

    What is cellulose? What are its usages?

  4. PrincessAlexis Greymyst

    PrincessAlexis Greymyst

    Prieš 22 val

    ok your mind should explode trying to comprehend what these men had to do back then and what they were doing it with

  5. digital1911


    Prieš 22 val

    I've learned more off this channel about science than I did through all of grade school and college.

  6. Al Casey

    Al Casey

    Prieš dieną

    Have you ever lost your cell phone on a helicopter?

  7. James Hecker

    James Hecker

    Prieš dieną

    Great video, very informative, as always, but...what's with the ubiquitous ball cap?

  8. Steve Bez

    Steve Bez

    Prieš dieną

    Hmm,enc rip etaa, Ntfs,ringo,beat app alls, double u bubble u rock it say a rents,poke,Sputnicks,dog!

  9. Flearther McPlane

    Flearther McPlane

    Prieš dieną

    LMAO! Still trying to reinforce the Moon hoax. The rocket went ''''''splash'''''' in the ocean. No one was on board and that's - the end! ...or the beginning of the same practice which has retarded people (self prescribed intellects) thinking we actually go to the imaginary place they call, "SPACE"... You should rename our channel to, "Dumber Every Day". It's far more appropriate!

  10. Brown Sugar

    Brown Sugar

    Prieš dieną

    science take you to the moon, religion take to the dumpster

  11. Fernando Rizo

    Fernando Rizo

    Prieš dieną

    Dude, awesome video. Respect the father of all this. Linus is just not welcome. Respect. RESPECT. Hey SmarterEveryDay , no more Linus.

  12. Pedro Giafferis

    Pedro Giafferis

    Prieš dieną

    This is crazy!!!

  13. scooby405


    Prieš dieną

    Can you make a video on aerogel

  14. Kirk P

    Kirk P

    Prieš 2 dienas

    From back in the days when electrons were the size of Cocoa Puffs...LOL!

  15. Mr Memes

    Mr Memes

    Prieš 2 dienas

    I've actually been here

  16. Wuety06


    Prieš 2 dienas

    Jesus Linus sure u could China has small hands

  17. Wuety06


    Prieš 2 dienas

    It's rope memory

  18. Christian Gather

    Christian Gather

    Prieš 2 dienas

    How can you thumbs down this??? Awesome video guys!! I learned something new (old) today :)

  19. nicotate07


    Prieš 2 dienas

    I love seeing my two favourite youtubers sharing the stuff they're passionate about!

  20. Ash Sherr

    Ash Sherr

    Prieš 2 dienas

    this is the prick that kidnapped jesse pinkman

  21. Zareer K'Maneck

    Zareer K'Maneck

    Prieš 2 dienas

    My 5 yr old boy and I love your videos. In fact your video on laminar flow impressed him so much that when he visits a fountain of any sort that is all he looks for. Can you do a video explaining Prince Rupert's drops. Thanks.

  22. Qaveth


    Prieš 2 dienas

    Typical space videos by nasa, real life money loss, aka launching rockets into the sea with no humans, then cgi all the way till they end, last but not least recycle rocket from sea and repeat.

  23. burgershot


    Prieš 3 dienas


  24. Abhinav Sharma

    Abhinav Sharma

    Prieš 3 dienas

    Luke : "It was used in SATURN V" Linus : "But will it run CRYSIS?!"

  25. Terracom 7

    Terracom 7

    Prieš 3 dienas

    so I found a cool science anomaly that I haven't seen before and I searched it up and can't find it or an explanation. if you take a 2 by 4 block of aluminum and you put it on its side, so the short side is facing up. then if you slightly slant the block and roll a cylinder magnet down at a slight angle it will seem to bounce off the side of the wall as if there is an invisible barrier.

  26. Ken Haley

    Ken Haley

    Prieš 3 dienas

    At 2:00, you are describing "core" memory, which was the type of memory used in most computers up to around 1975-1980, when semiconductor memory first entered the scene. I worked on an IBM 1620, a 1401 and others, including a minicomputer made by a company called Microdata, which all used core memory. (I'm 72.) I still have three 8K memory boards from that Microdata computer. (Failure of this type of memory was common, so I decided to save boards when they were replaced.) I remember they were priced at $3,500 each back then, or around 5 cents/bit. At that rate, 16GB of RAM (128 billion bits), now commonplace in PC's, would cost 6.4 billion dollars (without accounting for inflation)! That's over double the entire Apollo program budget. (Good thing they didn't need 16GB.) Just as shown in this video, I can see the little cores arranged on the grid of wires. I was amazed back then, and I still find it impressive today. Here's an interesting fact about core memory: In order to read a bit, the computer would actually write a zero at that location. A sense wire running through all the bits on that plane would detect a pulse if that location originally contained a 1 because reversing the magnetic direction would induce that electric pulse. A second cycle was then required to restore the bit back to a 1 (or leave it as 0 if no pulse was detected). This was known as "destructive" read, requiring two machine cycles. One cycle on the Microdata was one microsecond (1 MHz). A modern CPU running at 4GHz is 4,000 times faster. But one cool thing: if the computer lost power, core memory was preserved! It wasn't 100% reliable, but often, when the computer was powered back on after a power failure, it could continue running where it left off! Anyway, I am wondering what to do with these memory boards. Right now, they're just gathering dust in my closet. Any ideas?

  27. Micha Grill

    Micha Grill

    Prieš 3 dienas

    Not gonna lie that ad at the end was pretty salty :P

  28. Carlthehamster


    Prieš 3 dienas

    ok now i love this episode because of linus and rockets xD

  29. Gydo194


    Prieš 3 dienas

    of course Linus likes the cooling system the most LOL

  30. Oliver McIlwain

    Oliver McIlwain

    Prieš 3 dienas

    Why do surfaces get dark when wet?

  31. mohammad ziad

    mohammad ziad

    Prieš 4 dienas

    And then a flat earther come and say the space is fake.

  32. Eat Jat

    Eat Jat

    Prieš 4 dienas

    747 dislikes. How ironic.

  33. Nathan Weisser

    Nathan Weisser

    Prieš 4 dienas

    This video is supposed to be about a modern computer nerd and a 60s computer scientist interacting with each other, but what I'm more interested in is Linus being on the same screen as someone with a native Alabama accent lol

  34. Against NAZO!

    Against NAZO!

    Prieš 4 dienas

    But what's with technology a few years later? Would the MOS 6502 Processsor of Comodore64 be enough to steer such a rocket?

  35. Klippy Klop

    Klippy Klop

    Prieš 4 dienas

    very, very clever. Cut from a different cloth.

  36. Lisa Johnson

    Lisa Johnson

    Prieš 4 dienas

    Absolutely INCREDIBLE!!! I remember getting up early in the morning in the 1960's to watch a rocket launch on TV and it was an amazing feat back in the day. To see this "computer" that made that happy is mind blowing. These guys were amazing and it worked. Thanks for this very cool video.

  37. donven33


    Prieš 4 dienas

    Hey Dustin, I am a long time Audible client but still go and check out your recommendation everytime you make one. Just curious what else do you have in your Audible collection please? Thanks in advance!

  38. Astrowixa102 Elon

    Astrowixa102 Elon

    Prieš 4 dienas

    Saturn VRGB

  39. AJ Google

    AJ Google

    Prieš 4 dienas

    I'd appreciate more audiobooks recommendations :)

  40. mar sag

    mar sag

    Prieš 4 dienas

    these guys who made it in the '60s are authentical heroes!

  41. pawn pawnee

    pawn pawnee

    Prieš 4 dienas

    Flat earthers would like to disagree.

  42. ghanzo


    Prieš 4 dienas

    You can see the doubt building in Linus eyes, that the mission even happened.

  43. Paul Rickett

    Paul Rickett

    Prieš 4 dienas

    DumberEveryDay still hasn't figured out that the Apollo program never went to the moon. Earth is flat!

    • De Penguin

      De Penguin

      Prieš 3 dienas

      Absolutely agree!

  44. Jammy Pockets

    Jammy Pockets

    Prieš 5 dienų

    You get a free book on your first month of audible anyway, so what is the benefit of typing 'smarter'? Do you get an extra free book in your first month with this code?

  45. DeRiften


    Prieš 5 dienų

    Meanwhile today, people with no computer knowledge whatsoever can make complex games, and even the most basic of optimizations are a thing of the past. Engineers back then were goddamn geniuses

    • Alden Zenko

      Alden Zenko

      Prieš 2 dienas

      You might be surprised at some of the optimizations that modern compilers do automatically. No reason to reinvent the wheel

    • Roger Skagerström

      Roger Skagerström

      Prieš 3 dienas

      Well the ones today that makes all the stuff so easy "on the surface" aren't morons either :D Well.. Some on Microsoft must be. But generally ;)

  46. Shrop Shire

    Shrop Shire

    Prieš 5 dienų


  47. Technomaniac Dude

    Technomaniac Dude

    Prieš 5 dienų

    He was a dumb choice

  48. rahul suryawanshi

    rahul suryawanshi

    Prieš 5 dienų

    It was the passion of few peoples who broke all the barriers.. Hats off to them.. Wish I could be among them...

  49. John Goodman

    John Goodman

    Prieš 5 dienų

    What a fantastic insight from the wonderful gentleman who worked on creating those memory modules. Superb work. Thank you for putting this great video out :)

  50. ChrisCDXX


    Prieš 5 dienų

    You should zoom out more or sit farther back. No need to be all up in that camera dude. Love your videos!!

  51. poida84


    Prieš 5 dienų

    you should do a video about Hearing aids and cochlear implants

  52. Max Mcallister

    Max Mcallister

    Prieš 5 dienų

    After watching almost every one of your videos when you say "Lets go get smarter every day" still makes me smile with excitement about what I'm going to learn. Never change Destin, never change.

  53. imperiajor


    Prieš 5 dienų

    Awesome video man, Congrats ^-^

  54. rhkips


    Prieš 5 dienų

    Ohshi--You're here in Huntsville? Hahaha, awesome! I love coming over 565 and seeing that big ol' Saturn V poking out through the trees. This was SO cool!! Thank you for sharing this. :D

  55. 14598175


    Prieš 5 dienų

    Wait a minute...aren't you the guy who used to take 6-packs of beer over to Truman's home?

  56. Nicholas Lettiere

    Nicholas Lettiere

    Prieš 6 dienų

    Hey Destin, I have a question I was hoping you could answer? Could you "blind" a speed camera if you had license plate lights that were like infrared spotlights? And if so, is it possible for a light to put out both visible and infrared light simultaneously?

  57. TigerZero aka Allen

    TigerZero aka Allen

    Prieš 6 dienų

    I'm 61. I was there watching in real time the launch of Apollo 11. Then a decade later I gained a friend that worked for Western Union. He showed me there facility. Around 1980. They had 3 of the same model IBM computers that was used to launch the Apollo ship just to handle telegrams and showed me one one of those core memory boards. When one would fail, there was a husband and wife team that would fly out and replace that tiny ferrous core in the weave. They got paid 20 grand to do it. So I was told. Now in your computer. You have a failed 4 Gigabyte memory, had to spell it out, "card/stick"...... You replace, it at a cost less than 100 bucks.

  58. Chris Young

    Chris Young

    Prieš 6 dienų

    There have been a lot of videos posted recently regarding the 50th anniversary of Apollo 11. In another video (I'm sorry I don't remember where) they were talking about the Apollo guidance computer that was in the command module. It also talked about the core memory being hand wired. That video implied that the actual data was encoded in the wiring patterns. Such that if you wanted a bit "ON" you wire it one way and if you wanted a bit "OFF" you wired it a different way. I did not believe that for a minute. I was a computer science student in the early 70s in the days when mainframe computers had iron core memory and I knew that it was a programmable memory and not a ROM. It's hard enough to wire up those cores but the idea that they were looking at some sort of data dump with binary code and hardwiring the data into the cores seemed ridiculous to me. Your revelation that each time you read one of the cores you had to rewrite it to re-magnetize the core confirms for me but also this was mostly a read-only memory, that the actual program was not physically hardwired into it but was somehow programmed into it like a ROM memory. Can you confirm that the cores were all wired identically and then somehow programmed once assembled and that the program itself was not handwoven into the hardware?

    • spikester


      Prieš 3 dienas

      I do believe rope memory can be hardwired to be a mask ROM configuration so that does make sense. Some of the programs were woven into the ropes, some were non-volatile (mostly the development systems if I recall).

  59. Dark Thoughts

    Dark Thoughts

    Prieš 6 dienų

    I recall good ole core store back in the early 70s. We were told that they were made by Spanish lace weavers who had the dexterity.

  60. Graham


    Prieš 6 dienų

    All of this type of video merely illustrate how far technology has come since 1969, and thus the ever growing question of why exactly ZERO people have made it past LEO since these stories of them doing so.

  61. gk10002000


    Prieš 6 dienų

    I can't believe this computer geek had never heard of the computer history of this. Gosh those core photos and origins better not be lost on new kids beginning intro classes

  62. gk10002000


    Prieš 6 dienų

    i started engineering school in 1975. My first computer I used was an IBM 360 that still used magnetic core memory. heck the range safety computer at Vandenberg AFB where I was stationed 82-86 also used an old IBM. I really did use punch cards and batch process my programs. Drop them off and hope a day or two later it worked

    • Dean Pettikas

      Dean Pettikas

      Prieš 6 dienų

      I thought I was the last person left that remembered punch cards.

  63. Keith Lillis

    Keith Lillis

    Prieš 6 dienų

    Very, very interesting indeed!

  64. DERP-KING /mateo

    DERP-KING /mateo

    Prieš 6 dienų

    I think the moon landing is fake! Change my mind

    • DERP-KING /mateo

      DERP-KING /mateo

      Prieš 4 dienas

      @Ozzy Man Diaz the rocket flew on a computer that is almost nothing, i doubt it that the moon landing is fake, but i consider it as an option. I mean that it is very hard to fly such a rocket that needs to be precisely aimed and controlled with a little pc that you can buy now for under 50€

    • Ozzy Man Diaz

      Ozzy Man Diaz

      Prieš 4 dienas

      trying to convince one of you people is like trying to convince a dog that the moon land is real. The difference is that a dog would agree if it could, but you idiots wouldn't!

  65. Dewey Tucker

    Dewey Tucker

    Prieš 6 dienų

    That thing could not navigate around your block. The moon landings are as valid as the theories of gravity. This logical statement always brings out the cockroach agent provocateurs.

  66. M S

    M S

    Prieš 6 dienų

    Simply genius 🤘

  67. mentalplayground


    Prieš 6 dienų


  68. ZandarKoad


    Prieš 6 dienų

    Breaking News: Linus Sebastian is in the hospital with a severe head wound. Police have an elderly man in custody as the primary suspect. News at 11.

    • Global Truth

      Global Truth

      Prieš 3 dienas

      Actually the phrase is/was "film at 11". Yeah, I'm that old.

  69. john gallipani

    john gallipani

    Prieš 6 dienų

    🤔 ok but what did the rocket push off of and manipulate through?!, it’s was in a vacuum

  70. marianna poonka

    marianna poonka

    Prieš 6 dienų

    Of course Linus is here

  71. off7hewall


    Prieš 6 dienų

    I'm glad Linus didn't drop that.

  72. Dennis Ball

    Dennis Ball

    Prieš 6 dienų

    Why? ... why did he wait until the very end to say, "Those things were made by hand. The ladies actually wove these things like you're weaving a... piece of cloth"? The entire line of questioning assumed that this guy had a hand in the actual crafting of such tedious and delicate work. No discredit to Destin... the vital info is there.

  73. Deryck Beliveau

    Deryck Beliveau

    Prieš 6 dienų

    Is a word here two bytes?

  74. jozia


    Prieš 6 dienų

    RIP Grant

  75. Eugene Sesma III

    Eugene Sesma III

    Prieš 7 dienų

    Is it true that farmers can no longer fix their own tractors?

    • EvilPlagueDoctor


      Prieš 5 dienų

      Kinda, farm machinery is getting more and more computerised, and like apple, some companies (john Deere comes to mind as a particularly bad for this) they make it proprietary, so you need Thier specific programmer (or send it in, since they don't sell those programmers) to fix most things that are more complex than changing a belt.

  76. Les Rylett

    Les Rylett

    Prieš 7 dienų

    What a wonderful video. I was 24 years old when the first man stepped on the moon, and I am still learning how it was achieved. Amazing.

  77. Daniel Widyanto

    Daniel Widyanto

    Prieš 7 dienų

    The predecessor of PLA and modern FPGA. I believe it's more like system state design rather than 'if-then-else' sequential programming. We are still doing the byte-by-byte frame check in embedded industry btw (though bus analyzer is getting more common and cheaper)..

  78. Ramesh Nandi

    Ramesh Nandi

    Prieš 7 dienų

    Holi moli!!😢

  79. M.A. Zaki

    M.A. Zaki

    Prieš 7 dienų

    Luke's accent seems like he's from Kentucky or nearby and I liked it!

  80. Scott Mangels

    Scott Mangels

    Prieš 7 dienų

    Thank you so much for sharing that. I’m absolutely fascinated and even though technology is so much more advanced I feel many of those individuals were much more meticulous and intelligent than we have become.